NOTE! This site uses cookies and similar technologies.

If you not change browser settings, you agree to it. Learn more

I understand

In order to make our website more comfortable and intuitive, we use cookies: they are small files of information needed to understand how users navigate in our website and make your browsing experience more enjoyable and more efficient in the future. Cookies do not store any personal information, and will not be stored any identifiable data. If you want to disable the use of cookies you have to customize the settings of your internet browser by removing all existing cookies and disabling their storage. To proceed without modifying the application of the cookies just continue the surfing.

Please visit for more information about cookies and how they affect your browsing experience.

Types of cookies used:

Technical cookie 
These cookies are essential for the website navigation; without some of these, technical issues could not work.

Performance cookie
These cookies collect informations about how visitors use the website: for example, which pages are most popular, and which pages have reported warnings or error messages. These cookies do not collect any personal information about the visitor, and they are used only to improve the website operation. By using our website, you agree that these cookies may be installed on your device.

Functionality Cookie
Cookies allow the website to remember the choices made by the user (for example, to remember the language choice) and provide custom functionality. These cookies can also be used to remember changes to the text size and other features of web pages that you can customize. They can also be used to provide services such as watching a video or sharing on social networks. The information gathered from these types of cookies can be anonymous and can't track your browsing activity on other websites. By using our website, you agree that these cookies may be installed on your device.

Google Analytics
This website uses Google Analytics, a web analytics service provided by Google Inc.
The information generated by the cookie about your use of the website (including your anonymous IP address) will be transmitted and stored in Google's servers in the United States. Google will use this information with the purpose of evaluating your use of the website, compiling reports on website activity for the operators and providing other services relating to website activity and internet usage. Google may also transfer this information to third parties, unless required by law, or where such third parties process the information on Google's behalf. Google will not associate your IP address with any other data held by Google. By using this website, you allow Google to process the data about you in the manner and purposes set out above.

This website uses plugins from the social network, which is operated by Facebook Inc., 1601 S. California Ave, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA (subsequently called "Facebook"). When opening a website that contains such a plugin, your browser will establish a direct connection to the Facebook servers. Facebook will transfer the content of the plugin directly to your browser, the latter of which will embed it in the website. This website hence does not have any influence on the amount of data that Facebook collects through this plugin and informs you according to its best knowledge. Through embedding the plugins Facebook receives the information that you have opened the respective website. If you are logged in to Facebook, Facebook can link this information to your Facebook account. If you interact with the plugins, for example by clicking the Like-button or commenting, your browser will submit this information directly to Facebook, which will save it. If you are not a member of Facebook, Facebook nonetheless might identify and save your IP address. Purpose and scope of the data collection as well as its distribution and usage of the data by Facebook as well as respective rights and preferences regarding privacy can be found in Facebook's privacy policy If you are a member of Facebook and do not want Facebook to collect data through this website and connect it to your Facebook profile, you have to log out from Facebook prior to visiting this site.


Lumbar Puncture

An overview on a surgical procedure: Lumbar Puncture. Author of this chapter: Shah Dais, MS


An overview on Cerebral Angiography in cerebrovascular disease: from indications to technical notes. Authors of this module: Dr. Simone Peschillo, MD; Dr. Francesco Diana, MD.

Craniometric Points

A detailed overview of the craniometric points. Author of this module: Edoardo Agosti, MS; Simona Serioli, MS; Federico Nicolosi, MD.

maxillary bone

Systematic description of Maxillary Bone.

palatine bone

Systematic description of Palatine Bone.

skull anatomy

Systematic overview of skull anatomy. This module contains the free full text of AppSurgeOn - 3D Skull Atlas (Go to Apps for more informations). Authors: Francesco Belotti, MD; Federico Nicolosi, MD.

sphenoid bone

Systematic description of Sphenoid Bone.

temporal bone

Systematic description of Temporal Bone.

ethmoid bone

Systematic description of Ethmoid Bone.

Pterional Approach

Steps of the Pterional Approach, one-layer and two-layers techniques. Author of this module: Dr. Giannantonio Spena, MD, Dr. Federico Nicolosi, MD.

Brain Gliomas

Scores and classifications about neoplastic disease of the CNS.


Classifications of the traumatic diseases of both the brain and spine. Authors of this module: Giorgio Saraceno, MS; Antonio D'Ammando, MD.

Degenerative Spine

Three essential classifications/scales for the assessment of degenerative spine: Modic Classification, Nutrick Scale, White-Panjab Scale. Authors: Giorgio Saraceno, MS; Dr. Gabriele Costantino, MD.

Cerebral Vascular Malformations AVM

Cerebral vascular malformations are a rare pathology. The authors present AVM scores and classifications. Authors of this module: Giorgio Saraceno, MS; Federico Nicolosi, MD.

Cerebral Aneurysms

MGH (Ogilvy) Grade and PHASES Score of Cerebral Aneurysms. Authors of this module: Giorgio Saraceno, MS; Federico Nicolosi, MD, UpSurgeOn Scientific Team.

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)

Principal Classifications and Scores for SAH. Authors of this module: Giorgio Saraceno, MS; Federico Nicolosi, MD.

A comprehensive presentation of Spine and Spinal Cord Tumors: from anatomical and pathological features to clinical management. Author of this module: Fabio Paio, MS.

deep brain stimulation

An overview on Parkinson’s disease and Deep Brain Stimulation. Authors of this chapter: Dr Vincenzo Levi, MD.


A detailed presentation on Hydrocephalus and its clinical onset. Author of this module: Fabio Paio, MS.

chiari malformation type 1

An overview on Chiari Malformation type I (CMI) in adults. Authors of this chapter: Dr. Giannantonio Spena, MD, Dr. Federico Nicolosi, MD.

Brain gliomas

An overview on the basic concepts concerning Brain Gliomas. Authors of this chapter: Dr. Roberto Altieri, MD; Dr. Giannantonio Spena, MD.

Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH)

An overview on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) from definition to physiopathology. Authors of this module: Giorgio Saraceno, MS; Giannantonio Spena, MD.

Cerebral Aneurysms

An overview on brain aneurysms, from definition to pathological aspects. Authors of this module: Giorgio Saraceno, MS; Federico Nicolosi, MD.

Epidural hematoma (EDH) is one the most frequent post-traumatic events. Here an overview. Authors of this module: Giorgio Saraceno, MS; Dr. Antonio D'Ammando, MD.

Subdural Hematoma (SDH)

An overview on subdural hematoma (SDH) basic concepts. Authors of this module: Giorgio Saraceno, MS; Dr. Antonio D'Ammando, MD.

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) refers to a bleeding in the subarachnoidal space. Authors of this module: Giorgio Saraceno, MS; Federico Nicolosi, MD.