Brain – Convexity

Mental Skills Required

Automatism

Imagination

Strategy

Mental Skills Required

Automatism

Imagination

Strategy

Frontal Lobe

The superolateral surface is bordered posteriorly by the central sulcus. It presents:

  • the superior frontal gyrus
  • the middle frontal gyrus
  • the inferior frontal gyrus
  • and the superior, middle, and inferior frontopolar gyri
  • the precentral gyrus.

The lateral surface is crossed by the following sulci:

  • the precentral sulcus
  • the superior frontal sulcus
  • the inferior frontal sulcus

Superolateral surface of the frontal lobe

Superolateral surface of the frontal lobe

Inferior frontal gyrus

Central region

Frontomarginal sulcus

The horizontal sulcus on the anterior surface of the frontal pole. It is limited superiorly by the inferior frontal and the frontopolar gyri; inferiorly by the frontomarginal gyrus.

Frontomarginal gyrus

The horizontal gyrus is placed under the frontomarginal sulcus, at the edge between the lateral and the basal surfaces of the frontal lobe.

Superior frontopolar sulcus

The horizontal groove on the frontal pole separating the inferior portion of the superior frontal gyrus from the superior frontopolar gyrus.

Superior frontopolar gyrus

The most superior gyrus of the frontal pole. It is located between the superior frontal gyrus, superiorly, and the middle frontopolar gyrus, inferiorly. It is bordered laterally by the superior frontal sulcus.

Middle frontopolar gyrus

The groove is located between the superior and inferior frontopolar gyri. It stops laterally at the level of the middle and inferior frontal gyri.

Inferior frontopolar gyrus

The most inferior gyrus of the frontal pole. It is located between the inferior frontopolar sulcus superiorly and the frontomarginal sulcus.


Temporal Lobe

The superolateral surface is divided into three gyri by the superior and inferior temporal sulcus. These horizontal gyri, from superior to inferior, are:

  • superior temporal gyrus
  • middle temporal gyrus
  • inferior temporal gyrus

In front of this area, there is the temporal pole. All this region is characterized by a lot of sulcal bridges

Superolateral surface of the temporal lobe

Superolateral surface of the temporal lobe

Sylvian surface

The Sylvian part of the medial surface is divided, from anterior to posterior, into three areas thanks to the transverse temporal sulcus: the planum polare, the transverse temporal gyrus, and the planum temporale.

Transverse temporal sulcus

The small sulcus which arises from the lateral fissure separating the transverse temporal gyrus from the planum temporale.

Transverse temporal gyrus

The area constituting the dorsal portion of the superior temporal gyrus, also known as Heschl’s gyrus. It is bordered anteriorly by the planum polare, posteriorly by the planum temporale. Occasionally, it can be divided by an intermediate transverse sulcus in anterior and posterior transverse temporal gyri.

Planum temporale

The area which forms the most caudal portion of the dorsal surface of the superior temporal gyrus. It is placed posteriorly to the Heschl’s gyrus. Sometimes it is divided into vertical and horizontal segments.

Planum polare

The dorsal portion of the superior temporal gyrus is placed anteriorly to the Heschl’s gyrus, in front of the transverse temporal sulcus, and it forms the rostral portion of the superior temporal gyrus. It is bounded medially by the parahippocampal gyrus.


Parietal Lobe

The superolateral surface of the parietal lobe is limited by the central sulcus anteriorly and by the parieto-occipital sulcus posteriorly. Inferiorly it is bordered by the posterior ramus of the Sylvian fissure and by an undefined sulcus of the occipital and temporal lobes.

The surface presents two main sulci:

  • the postcentral sulcus, which is parallel to the central sulcus
  • the intraparietal sulcus.

These sulci form three main gyri:

  • the postcentral gyrus
  • the superior and inferior parietal lobules.

The inferior lobule is divided into two portions: the supramarginal and the angular gyri. This surface is connected to the frontal lobe through the paracentral and subcentral gyrus.

Central region

Superolateral surface of parietal lobe

Inferior parietal lobe


Occipital Lobe

The superolateral surface presents a horizontal sulcus, called the lateral occipital sulcus, which limits :

  • the superior occipital gyrus
  • the inferior occipital gyrus

The lateral surface turns medially as the posterior surface, which corresponds to the convexity of the occipital pole.

The superolateral surface of the occipital lobe

Inferior occipital sulcus

The small horizontal sulcus on the inferior surface of the lobe. It separates the middle and the inferior occipital gyri.

Lateral occipital sulcus

The horizontal fissure that divides the middle occipital gyrus into the superior and inferior portions. It often arises from the middle segment of the lunate sulcus, and anteriorly it can be connected to the inferior temporal sulcus.

Anterior occipital sulcus

The small fissure that may arise from the preoccipital notch, connecting the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus.

Superolateral surface of the occipital lobe

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