Brain – Inferior surface

Mental Skills Required




Mental Skills Required




Frontal Lobe

The orbital surface presents five gyri: 

  • the gyrus rectus
  • the anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral orbital gyri
  • the frontomarginal gyrus (located between the orbital and the lateral surfaces) 

The orbital surface is crossed by two main sulci: 

  • the olfactory sulcus 
  • the H-shaped orbital sulcus

Sometimes, the typical subdivision into four orbital gyri is not well defined.

Gyrus Rectus

Olfactory sulcus

Orbital sulcus

Orbital gyri

The medial orbital sulcus is divided into rostral and caudal segments: the rostral portion separates the anterior orbital gyrus from the medial orbital gyrus; the caudal portion divides the medial orbital gyrus from the posterior one. 

The lateral orbital sulcus is also divided into two segments: the rostral portion separates the anterior orbital gyrus from the lateral one; the caudal portion divides the posterior orbital gyrus from the lateral one. The transverse orbital sulcus crosses the longitudinal sulci in their middle point, separating the anterior from the posterior orbital gyri.

Temporal Lobe

The inferior surface of the lobe is marked, from medial to lateral, by three horizontal sulci: 

  • the rhinal sulcus
  • the collateral sulcus
  • the occipital temporal sulcus. 

They bound, from medial to lateral:

  • the parahippocampal gyrus
  • the occipital temporal gyrus 
  • the inferior temporal gyrus

Collateral sulcus

Parahippocampal ramus

The segment of the collateral sulcus containing the common temporal artery, which originates from the posterior cerebral artery. When this sulcus is present, it divides the parahippocampal gyrus into the anterior and posterior parts.

Occipito-temporal sulcus

Rhinal sulcus

Parahippocampal gyrus

Parahippocampal gyrus

Lateral occipito-temporal gyrus

Occipital Lobe

The basal surface is continuous to the basal surface of the temporal lobe. It presents the prolongation of gyri and sulci that can be seen on the inferior surface of the temporal lobe.

Other Structures

Anterior perforated substance

Optic chiasm

Optic tracts

Pituitary infundibulum

Pituitary gland

Tuber Cinereum

The anterior portion of the interpenduncular region, limited by the optic chiasm, anteriorly, and the two mammillary bodies, posteriorly.

It constitutes part of the floor of the third ventricle and hosts the infundibulum of the pituitary gland, which subdivides the tuber into H shape: the anterior, posterior, right and left areas.

Mammillary bodies

Pterional Box: brain box for pteronial approach

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