Brain – Medial surface

Mental Skills Required




Mental Skills Required




Frontal Lobe

The medial surface presents the following:

  • part of the frontopolar gyri
  • part of the superior frontal gyrus
  • part of the paracentral lobule

The medial surface is crossed by the callosal sulcus and the cingulate sulcus.

Medial surface of the frontal lobe

Central region

Parietal Lobe

The medial surface of the hemisphere presents the medial expansion of the superior parietal lobule, superiorly, called the precuneus. It also includes the posterior part of the paracentral lobule and part of the cingulate gyrus.


Occipital Lobe

The medial surface presents two sulci: the parieto-occipital sulcus and the calcarine sulcus; they limit a gyrus called the cuneus. Below the calcarine sulcus, there is the lingual gyrus, projecting towards the temporal lobe. Between the lingual and the fusiform gyri, the collateral sulcus can be identified.


Calcarine sulcus

Calcar avis

The prominence on the medial wall of the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle located where the anterior segment of the calcarine sulcus crosses the inferior one of the parieto-occipital sulcus. At this level, the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle continues into the occipital horn.

Lingual gyrus

Occipito-polar sulcus

The small fissure parallel to the retrocalcarine sulcus that borders the gyrus descendent of Ecker anteriorly.

Gyrus descendent of Ecker

The gyrus located between the retrocalcarine and the occipito-polar sulcus.

Other Structures

Corpus callosum

Cingulate sulcus

Cingulate gyrus

The convolution on the medial surface of the hemisphere belonging to the limbic lobe. It embraces the corpus callosum arising at the level of the rostrum, anteriorly to the subcallosal area, separated from the frontal and a portion of the parietal lobe by the cingulate sulcus. 

The subparietal sulcus divides the posterior part from the medial surface of the parietal lobe. It ends at the level of the splenium of the corpus callosum. It is composed of three portions: anterior, anterior midcingulate, posterior midcingulate, and isthmus or posterior cortex of the cingulate gyrus. Anteriorly, the rostral portion may be a continuation of the subcallosal area; posteriorly, the isthmus continues to the parahippocampal gyrus.

Isthmus (ICgG) 

Pineal gland

Subparietal sulcus (SS) or (sbps)

Groove of the medial surface of the hemisphere, located between the inferior surface of the precuneus and the caudal portion of the cingulate gyrus; it is the continuation of the cingulate sulcus posteriorly. It is characterized by different patterns: H, oblique, single or triple upward branch and double horizontal sulci pattern.

Pterional Box: brain box for pteronial approach

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