NOTE! This site uses cookies and similar technologies.

If you not change browser settings, you agree to it. Learn more

I understand

In order to make our website more comfortable and intuitive, we use cookies: they are small files of information needed to understand how users navigate in our website and make your browsing experience more enjoyable and more efficient in the future. Cookies do not store any personal information, and will not be stored any identifiable data. If you want to disable the use of cookies you have to customize the settings of your internet browser by removing all existing cookies and disabling their storage. To proceed without modifying the application of the cookies just continue the surfing.

Please visit for more information about cookies and how they affect your browsing experience.

Types of cookies used:

Technical cookie 
These cookies are essential for the website navigation; without some of these, technical issues could not work.

Performance cookie
These cookies collect informations about how visitors use the website: for example, which pages are most popular, and which pages have reported warnings or error messages. These cookies do not collect any personal information about the visitor, and they are used only to improve the website operation. By using our website, you agree that these cookies may be installed on your device.

Functionality Cookie
Cookies allow the website to remember the choices made by the user (for example, to remember the language choice) and provide custom functionality. These cookies can also be used to remember changes to the text size and other features of web pages that you can customize. They can also be used to provide services such as watching a video or sharing on social networks. The information gathered from these types of cookies can be anonymous and can't track your browsing activity on other websites. By using our website, you agree that these cookies may be installed on your device.

Google Analytics
This website uses Google Analytics, a web analytics service provided by Google Inc.
The information generated by the cookie about your use of the website (including your anonymous IP address) will be transmitted and stored in Google's servers in the United States. Google will use this information with the purpose of evaluating your use of the website, compiling reports on website activity for the operators and providing other services relating to website activity and internet usage. Google may also transfer this information to third parties, unless required by law, or where such third parties process the information on Google's behalf. Google will not associate your IP address with any other data held by Google. By using this website, you allow Google to process the data about you in the manner and purposes set out above.

This website uses plugins from the social network, which is operated by Facebook Inc., 1601 S. California Ave, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA (subsequently called "Facebook"). When opening a website that contains such a plugin, your browser will establish a direct connection to the Facebook servers. Facebook will transfer the content of the plugin directly to your browser, the latter of which will embed it in the website. This website hence does not have any influence on the amount of data that Facebook collects through this plugin and informs you according to its best knowledge. Through embedding the plugins Facebook receives the information that you have opened the respective website. If you are logged in to Facebook, Facebook can link this information to your Facebook account. If you interact with the plugins, for example by clicking the Like-button or commenting, your browser will submit this information directly to Facebook, which will save it. If you are not a member of Facebook, Facebook nonetheless might identify and save your IP address. Purpose and scope of the data collection as well as its distribution and usage of the data by Facebook as well as respective rights and preferences regarding privacy can be found in Facebook's privacy policy If you are a member of Facebook and do not want Facebook to collect data through this website and connect it to your Facebook profile, you have to log out from Facebook prior to visiting this site.

Scientific Articles

This review lends an insight into the use of cerebral microdialysis in patients with traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Developed in the 1970s, the technique involves the placement of a fenestrated microcatheter into the brain parenchyma - conclusions can then be drawn from analysis of the returned dialysate regarding the physiological state of the brain.


Read the article


Brain injury continues to present a significant treatment challenge. Not only is initial, life-saving management of these patients complicated, but progress with improving long-term neurological prognosis is slow. In such a climate, it is necessary to investigate the use of new therapies. In this article, the authors discuss the use of cerium oxide nanoparticles in models of neurological injury. The implication of free-radicals in exacerbating brain injury is demonstrated, and also the use of antioxidants to address this.


Read the article

Metastases are frequently reported to be the most common neoplasms in the central nervous system among adult patients. The intracranial burden of the disease is often associated with seizures - a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in itself. In this article, the authors examine the risk factors for preoperative seizures attributed to metastases, and their management postoperatively.

Read the article


Gliomatosis cerebri is a term principally used to describe a growth pattern of diffuse gliomas occupying three or more lobes. Studying this condition is complicated by its low prevalence and histological variation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of clinical practice patterns on the survival of patients with gliomatosis cerebri.

Read the article

Traditionally, spinal cord tethering is managed by releasing the base of the cord allowing it to relax and extend rostrally. This is suboptimal as it may lead to new deficits, and retethering from scar formation and contracture. The alternative method exists to relieve tension on the cord by shortening the spinal column. In this paper the authors conclude that this method is an efficacious alternative to the traditional surgery. However, with a exposed sample size of only 7 patients, it is reasonable to seek more evidence for this technique.

Read the article

VP shunt placement continues to be a commonly-performed procedure fraught with complications. This paper examines the trends in complications experienced in almost 4,000 shunt operations to identify common risk factors. In doing so, the authors propose that those particularly at risk can be identified, and special prophylactic measures can be taken to mitigate the risk of postoperative adverse events.

Go to the article

Invasive orbital apex aspergillosis (IOAA) is a rare and pernicious manifestation of aspergillus infection. The authors describe a series of cases in which immunocompetent patients with IOAA developed mycotic aneurysms and subsequently subarachnoid haemorrhage.

Go to the article

Sunday, 25 June 2017 21:22

Arteriovenous Malformations of the Brain

Written by

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) develop when abnormal shunts form between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary network. Cerebral AVMs typically present following haemorrhage or seizures. This article outlines the risks associated with AVMs, the various treatment options available and how these relate to the Spetzler-Martin grade.

Robert A. Solomon, M.D., and E. Sander Connolly, Jr., M.D.
N Engl J Med 2017; 376:1859-1866May 11, 2017DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1607407 

Go to the article


The conceptual division of intracranial arteries into segments provides a better understanding of their courses and a useful working vocabulary. 

Ana Rodríguez-Hernández, M.D., Albert L. Rhoton Jr., M.D., and Michael T. Lawton, M.D | Aug 2011 / Vol. 115 / No. 2 / Pages 387-397


Go to the Article

Page 5 of 5